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Net radiation is the sum of the four components shown to the left (incoming shortwave, outgoing shortwave, incoming longwave, outgoing longwave). Incoming shortwave incident on the surface is either reflected or absorbed by the surface material, and longwave radiation is emitted from the surface and emitted from the molecules of air in the atmosphere.
Typical clear sky summer fluxes over grass and clear sky winter fluxes over snow are shown. A typical summer flux at solar noon would be +650 W m⁻²; in winter it would be 0 W m⁻².

Radiation Fluxes